할리카르나소스의 마우솔레움, 마우솔로스 영묘(靈廟)[Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus, Turkey]

세계 고대 7대 불가사의 중 하나.

페르시아 제국 카리아의 총독 마우솔로스를 위하여 그리스의 할리카르나소스(Halicarnassus)에 건조된 장려한 무덤기념물이다. 

면적 29×35.6 m, 높이 50 m. 할리카르나소스의 묘묘(墓廟)라고도 한다. 마우솔로스의 생전에 착공되었으나, 그가 죽은 뒤 왕비 아르테미시아가 계속 진행하였으나 완성된 시기는 왕비 아르테미시아가 죽은(BC 350) 뒤로 추측된다. 
설계는 사티로스와 피테오스가 하였다. 동서남북의 장식조각은 각각 스코파스, 레오카레스, 티모테오스, 브리아크시스가 담당하였다. 
각 면의 조각·프리즈는 발굴되어 런던의 대영박물관에 수장되어 있다. 또, 로마인은 비슷한 대규모의 분묘건축(墳墓建築)도 마우솔레움이라고 일컬었다. 마우솔레움은 그 특이한 모양과 복잡한 장식 때문에 세계의 7대 불가사의의 하나로 꼽혔다


The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was one of the Ancient 7 Wonders of the World, chosen by Philon of Byzantium in 200 B.C.

Built between 370 and 350 B.C., this monumental white marble tomb was dedicated to King Mausolus by his grieving wife (and, according to some accounts, sister), Queen Artemisia II of Caria, as a memorial to their great love. It had been under Mausolus, a Persian ruler or satrap (satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces in the ancient Median and Persian Achaemenid empires and it was carried on, for example in later Hellenistic empires) who took on independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its greatest prosperity.

According to records, the Mausoleum once stood some 50 meters (135 feet) high and was surrounded by 36 columns. It was designed by the Greek architects Satyrus and Pythius and four famous Grecian sculptors added an ornamental frieze (decorated band) around its exterior.

The structure stood atop a marble pedestal at the intersection of the two main streets of Halicarnassus. The Mausoleum stood relatively intact until 1522 A.D., when it was ordered to be destroyed because it was an example of pagan art. The word mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb, though “Mausol-eum” originally meant “in honour of Mausol.



역사년표Map BC -AD 1 -600 -1000 -1500 -1800 -1900 -1950 -1980-현재 (1945년이후 10대뉴스)

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